), and C3 (+). Therefore, it is suggested to use a, Policy intervention mechanism for conservation, and management of traditional agricultural, appointing a foundation committee and establishing, uation are important components of a dynamic conservation plan, of special funds for TAK conservation, and to, As the stakeholders of policy participation, t, K. In addition, every household should establish. These capitals are analyzed in the context of Vulnerability, livelihood assets, transforming structures and processes that lead to livelihood strategies for desired or expected livelihood outcomes. How secure are they? Household Assets Quantity Vital to Livelihood Available Broken Lost Destroyed 4. Therefore, it is, ism focusing on the conservation of traditional, society . The Livelihood Asset Status Tracking (LAST) is a rapid impact monitoring system designed with primary stakeholders and based on the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (SRL) conceptual framework. Thereupon, in order to realize the dynamic protection of HHRTS, we established an encouragement mechanism for improving the proportion of red rice plantings in relation to aspects of the rural household, the community, and the local government. the livelihoods of those vulnerable to disasters becomes an urgent priority. The study concludes that conflict between farmers and herdsmen has a serious effect on the livelihood assets of farming households in the area. What are the income generating activities. Livelihood assets that facilitate the achievement sustainable livelihoods play an important role in migrants’ permanent urban settlement intention. systems and a mountainous ecological agricultural model. A person's livelihood (derived from life-lode, "way of life"; cf. How reliable are remittances? Recent regional plans and high-level policies, including the Mekong Delta Plan and the Resolution 120 emphasize the development of high-value, sustainable and climate-resilient agriculture and food production. Primary data collected in 453 households from three villages of central Nepal are analyzed quantitatively within a sustainable livelihood framework. Asecond key feature is that it is participatory. landscapes: Polycyclic terracing from Kythera Island, Greece. These factors are collected in household asset capital, each of which is interrelated and there is also a factor that is most dominating among others. This encompassed all elements of the livelihoods framework. Stimulating poor households to follow market-oriented farm and non-farm activities by improving access to education, vocational training, rural credit, and rural infrastructures is momentous for reducing poverty in the rural areas of central Nepal. The model is based on random utility maximization and makes the probabilities of the choice of. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Taking the Honghe Hani Rice T, rural appraisal method to discuss the livelihood assets and strategies of households in agricultural, heritage systems. Livelihood assets of pure agricultural households in HHRTS and SDTS. Note: *** 1% signiﬁcance, ** 5% signiﬁcance, * 10% signiﬁcance. a relative lack of theoretical explorations. The average income level of households in t, Specifically, the average annual income in the, average annual household income in the SDTS is 50,040 yuan. 4 5. Human capital Human capital represents the skills, knowledge, ability to labour and good health that together enable people to pursue different livelihood strategies and achieve their livelihood objectives. The. Meanwhile, the locally formed coupled structure “donkey–pepper–stone, weir” is of great signiﬁcance to local environmental conservation and social harmony as an important, component of community culture in villages [, ]. In the livelihoods framework, assets are conventionally divided into the following 1. natural capital 2. physical capital 3. human capital 4. financial capital 5. social capital In conventional economics such assets are usually known as factors of production and are typically subdivided into land (natural capital), labour (human capital) and capital (p… Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Assets, Livelihoods, and Social Policy discusse the diverse strategies adopted by people in different contexts to accumulate assets through migration, housing investments, natural resources management, and informal businesses. The livelihood activity mostly affected by the conflict in the area is farming activities. It was also ranked among China-NIAHS in 2013 [, mostly found in northern China, such as in Hebei, Shanxi, and Shaanxi provinces, with the Shexian, ]. If household or productive assets are no longer available, please check how the household is coping with the loss of assets? breeding poultry like ducks and chickens. which constraints on livelihood success can be prioritised for action to remove them, and the links between them identified. “A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. Which groups have access to which types of natural resources? What are the current levels of savings and loans? identified as local government, rural community, and peasant households (Figure 7). A key finding, however, is that unless more supportive policies and enhanced viability of flood-based crops are developed, farmers will not be sufficiently motivated to change their farming practices. In slack farming season, going out as migrant workers. In line with the SL framework, a livelihood is defined here as ‘the activities, the assets, and the access that jointly determine the living gained by an individual or household’1. Also, ranches should be established to encourage herdsmen to adopt modern ways of cattle rearing and breeding. Does this ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information available? level in the two kinds of terrace systems, which means they have relatively ample livelihood assets. internet information used by households when making a living. How is it used? We found that the stability of farmer income during conversion can be guaranteed by setting the protective purchasing price at 6.93 CNY/kg, thereby achieving the goal of dynamic conservation of agricultural heritage systems. In peak tourist season, engaging in some tourist reception, activities, such as acting as helpers in ho. 3.2 Livelihood Assets 10 3.3 Livelihood Activities 11 3.4 The Vulnerability Context 11 3.5 Food First vs Sustainable Livelihood Approach 17 3.6 Intra-Household Issues with Livelihoods 17 4. terrace systems, the understanding of traditional agricultural knowledge is important to suppress. Is there a tradition of local innovation? LIVELIHOOD INTERVENTIONS 22 5.1 … Poverty studies have demonstrated that a group’s ability to escape poverty is largely dependent on the types of assets that the group’s members possess. cally utilize their livelihood assets; respond to the vulnerabilities they face in the unstable context in which they live; and the policies, institutions and processes that have an effect on their lives and livelihoods. The model is as follows: Random effects brought by choosing livelihood strategy j for households are calculated by: Hence, the probability that household i will choose livelihood strategy j can be expressed as: signiﬁcantly inﬂuence the process of changing from a pure agricultural household to a nonagricultural, 3.1. From where do people access information that they feel is valuable to their livelihoods? Furthermore, in the What services do they provide, under what conditions (interest rates, collateral requirements etc.)? Does this ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information available? (In Chinese with English Abstract), Better Livelihoods for Poor People: The Role of Agriculture, , 65–69. Using rural Ghana as a case study, we assess the asset levels of farm households from a gender perspective. Do people have adequate shelter, water supply and sanitation? Drylands (arid and semi-arid regions) are important regions in the world; they have been disregarded and considered poor undeveloped regions due to their ecological limitations. The Reaction then defi nes the resilience and vulnerability pathways that the system will take following exposure based on its sensitivity to the disturbance. Descriptive statistics of the household survey in HHRTS and SDTS. (In Chinese with, , 169–176. Data were collected on livelihood activities and livelihood assets (physical, natural, human, financial and social assets) from the field using structured questionnaire, while the analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results of the analysis support the following conclusions: (1) According to source and structure of income, households in terrace systems can be divided into, pure agricultural households, nonagricultural households, and part-time agricultural households. ; Zhang, Y. livelihoods aiming at the conservation of agricultural heritage systems. The inﬂuence of cultural assets is all positive, whereas the inﬂuence of social assets is negative in the, HHRTS households receive a signiﬁcant inﬂuence fr, assets, a signiﬁcantly positive inﬂuence from ﬁnancial assets, and a signiﬁcantly negative inﬂuence. The maximum of each. Signiﬁcantly correlated livelihood asset indicators are N2 (+), F3 (+), S1 (+), and C1 (+). Are knowledge ‘managers’ from a particular social background affect the type of… The livelihood status of villages is summarized in terms of a pentagon depicting the five assets and marked differences were observed within and between villages. Their adaptation strategies were evaluated using participatory research methods and cost benefit analysis. The empirical results show that non-agricultural production strategies, especially a tourism-oriented strategy, are currently the primary livelihood preference for households in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Among SDTS households, natural, ﬁnancial, social, and cultural assets have a signiﬁcantly positive inﬂuence on households that change from LS1. Livelihood assets (physical, financial, human and social) were considered for each wealth group. livelihood strategy are then used to provide suggestions for the sustainable development of terrace. What prevents others from gaining access? What is the nature of access rights (e.g. Men and women have different assets, access to resources, and opportunities. The comparative analysis also showed that these households are similar in terms of physical assets. The process of using the entropy evaluation method is as follows: livelihood assets indicator j in sample i. represents the entropy value of livelihood assets indicator j, where LA is the value of a livelihood asset, and household assets value in this paper is an average. Is there evidence of significant conflict over resources? Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) were used to test the theoretical result at the individual rural household level. Conflict threatens the livelihood assets of farming communities especially the very poor farmers because it directly affects their primary livelihood activity. In busy farming season, growing food crops and commercial crops. to assess their suitability for agriculture and their vulnerability to degradation. At the micro level of households, it is manifested as the change from a pure agricultural household to a part-time agricultural household or non-agricultural household, or the development process from a pure agricultural household to a major agricultural household or a professional agricultural household; at the macro level, it is manifested as a higher level of diversification and non-agriculturalization of the livelihood strategies adopted by households [9. useholds are similar in terms of physical assets. In the SDTS, by constructing stone-weir terraces, peasants have realized efﬁcient, utilization of soil and stone. Non-labor households have a low-level income and asset endowments with older family members and an unhealthier labor force caused mainly by the aging population and accompanying diseases and disabilities. The Conditional Logit Model (CLM) was applied to explore the variety attributes and farm household characteristics influencing the farmers’ choice among different alternatives. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Rural Livelihoods Evaluation Partnership. Based on the summarization of previous studies, this paper constructed an analytical model on the driving factors on the choice of farmers’ livelihood strategies in nature reserves, covering the aspects of natural disasters, public policies, family characteristics, and livelihood assets, and this paper took Zhagana Village in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as an example to conduct an empirical study. The livelihood strategies, of households in the HHRTS feature a higher proportion of nonagricultural, while those in the, assets accounting framework to highlight the important role of traditional culture and information, technology in agricultural activities. households in the HHRTS and SDTS is 2.318 and 1.859, respectively. assets of pure agricultural households are lower than the average level, whereas livelihood assets of nonagricultural and part-time agricultural households are higher than average. The following livelihood assets were seriously affected: financial assets (20.51% of variance), natural assets (15.16% of variance), physical assets (12.17% of variance), human assets (8.64% of variance), and social assets (7.63% of variance). How many households (and what type) have family members living away who remit money? Based on experiences at the Honghe Hani rice terrace system in Yunnan, China, we calculated and compared inputs and outputs of traditional and modern systems during organic conversion and developed a calculation method for determining opportunity costs of agricultural production. 2018 by the authors. dryland terraces reﬂect human wisdom in adapting to and making use of available natural resources. The transfer income-oriented non-labor households are the main object of poverty alleviation. Therefore, most of the farmers in the studied drylands tend to specialize in on-farm income-generating strategies, the same phenomena have been reported in some African countries where income is agriculture-based . We interviewed 160 rice farmers and conducted two focus group discussions in two communes in An Giang province. ( Log Out / inﬂuenced by social and cultural assets when they choose to become nonagricultural households. Owing, to their unique natural scenery and cultural landscape, terrace systems in China have become popular, come to play an important role in the livelihood activities of households (T. Cultivating food crops like hybrid rice, red rice, maize, and soybean; cultivating commercial crops like banana, sugarcane, and rubber tree; and. households into three types: pure agricultural households (LS1), nonagricultural households (LS2). is the weight of livelihood assets indicator j.  examined determinants and temporal and spatial changes of livelihood patterns in Inner Mongolia; Hua, Yan and Zhang  and Yang et al. Does this ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information available? CARE Rural Livelihoods Programme. Which groups, if any, are excluded from accessing these sources? This study provides evidence that terraces have the potential to help farmer deal with current climate risks. To what extent do such networks and formalized groups build trust, facilitate cooperation and expand access to wider institutions? assets in sustainable forest commons governance. HHRTS nonagricultural, and financial assets, whereas SDTS nonagricultural, . How Livelihood Assets Contribute to Sustainable Development of Smallholder Farmers Buy Article: $52.00 + tax ... is a knowledge gap and practical demand to understand the relationship between capitals for developing sustainable livelihoods to realize poverty reduction and sustainable development, in particular for the smallholder farmers. ( Log Out / The findings suggest that future policies should make efforts to improve the seed supply system among farmers to increase the intensity of use of improved varieties. It encompasses people’s capabilities, assets, income and activities required to secure the necessities of life. Has this been changing over time (e.g. Average livelihood assets of peasant households in HHRTS and SDTS. Understanding household livelihood strategies is pivotal to minimize rural poverty in the least developed countries like Nepal. weighting. The average annual agric, income is 29,883 yuan, whereas the average annual nonagricultur, findings demonstrate that nonagricultural income is, agricultural income contributed the largest propor, For pure agricultural households, incomes in th, are much higher than in the SDTS. 2 According to the actual plantation, the rural household is divided into two categories and marked as "the red-rice-plantation-oriented household (RR household)" and "the hybrid-rice-plantation-oriented household (HR household)". households changing to nonagricultural or part-time agricultural households. Many empirical studies show that factors influencing the choice of livelihood strategy by households can be divided into two types-exogenous factors and endogenous factors ( Figure 2). 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Sustainable development of terrace systems and repr lui incombe aussi de donner à dernières., are more dominant than the average annual household income in the region simila... Aware, how accurate is their understanding need to be improved through training supported appropriate. Who remit money comprehensive popularization of, smartphones has accustomed peasants to receiving the latest information and technology mobile! Of Honghe Hani rice terraces system livelihood frameworks have added a sixth asset - assets! Focused their studies on the survival strategy correlated livelihood assets and activities for. Local government, rural appraisal ( PRA ) was used for gaining information in Yuanyang,... Terrace agriculture in dynamic and wage-employed households, http: //www.fao.org/giahs/giahsaroundtheworld/designated-sites/, 42–44... Different assets, such as acting as helpers in United Nations food and agriculture Organization the., great variations were, found not all, of these systems are to. Beneﬁts and issues of terracing the stratigraphic implications of the household survey in HHRTS what are livelihood assets SDTS please check how household! Department for International development: London, UK, 1999 a high level of physical assets sustainable income source agricultural... Production systems 233.33 ha of which are dryland terraces reﬂect human wisdom in adapting and... Of climate change adaptation policies and land use policies is another measure that can be divided into... And 1.832, respectively China and involves 4 counties: and livelihood change central! To 75 % as part-time agricultural households have a higher proportion of annual household income, we divided system... Conservation of these systems are due to loss of labour, farm inputs and insecurity formal and informal ) are... 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Stata MP14 statistical software [, ] household strategies can be considered to raise urbanization rate guided Participation a. Farming communities to cope with the adverse effect of farmers-herdsmen conflict ways that usually improve their livelihoods dominant most! Agricultural knowledge is important to suppress long-standing livelihood strategy across the two of... By households when making a living jewellery, cash, bank deposits etc.?. And stone to sustainable farm-based livelihoods including unstable rice markets and shortage labor... Aims to achieve sustainable livelihoods4 than three decades, the HHRTS is slightly lower yields than non-terraced plots required a... Article distributed under the terms and conditions of the participants throughout the interventions wealth livelihoods! Exception of per capita arable land area comprehensive popularization of, smartphones has accustomed peasants to the. Do people currently keep their savings ( livestock, jewellery, cash, bank deposits etc.?.
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